Terms of Use

Terms of Use
1. The owner of this website is a data service provider (host) for terminological data.
2. The user declares to respect copyright in general and the "Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases" in particular.
3. Download and use of whole databases or substantial parts thereof is prohibited.
4. In particular any commercial re-use of the host's terminological data is prohibited.
When copying, downloading or printing out this entry, please remember the rules concerning Copyright and the Code of Good Practice, to which you subscribed. You are responsible for making appropriate use of the data contained in this entry. DISCLAIMER: EuroTermBank cannot be made responsible for the accuracy of the terminological data".
Disclaimer
CAUTION: Use EuroTermBank at your own risk. Please be aware that any information you may find in EuroTermBank may be inaccurate or misleading.
This risk disclaimer has been linked to the page you have been reading because some of the information on that page may create an unreasonable risk for readers who choose to apply or use the information in their own activities or to promote the information for use by third parties.

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Do not rely upon any information found in EuroTermBank without independent verification.

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EuroTermBank makes no warranties or representations of any kind that the services provided by this web site will be uninterrupted, error-free or that the web site or the server that hosts the web site are free from viruses or other forms of harmful computer code.

Thank you for taking the time to read this page, and please enjoy your use of EuroTermBank.
Copyright Notice
The contents of EuroTermBank are subject to copyright. In most legal systems there are exemptions from copyright. They are largely based on the Berne Convention and subsequent modifications and extension, and, for the member states of the European Union, the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, and the Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases. These acts are implemented differently in individual countries due to their legal traditions.

The United States and the Philippines are the countries with a 'fair use' doctrine. However, comparable copyright limitations/exemptions can be found in many nations' copyright statutes, though these differ in scope, either in form of a related doctrine known as 'fair dealing', which is defined in a constrained manner through an enumerated list of causes for exemption that allows little room for judicial interpretation, or in form of codified, similarly specific and narrowly drawn exceptions.

Nevertheless, information found in entries of EuroTermBank may be in violation of the laws of the country or jurisdiction from where you are viewing this information. The data are stored on servers in different countries, and are maintained in reference to the protections afforded under local and European law. Laws in your country or jurisdiction may not protect or allow the same kinds of speech or distribution. EuroTermBank does not encourage the violation of any laws and cannot be responsible for any violations of such laws, should you link to this domain or use, reproduce, or republish the information contained herein.

According to copyright exemptions, such as reproduction in copies or by any other means, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright, provided that the source is indicated. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include - the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for non-profit educational purposes;
- the nature of the copyrighted work;
- the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
- the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.

IMPORTANT: If you want to use content from EuroTermBank, first read the Terms of Use.
Code of Good Practice for Copyright in Terminology
General observations
The importance of terminologies
Terminological data (terminologies) are important in a number of basic scientific and technical areas, such as
- Domain (specialised) communication;
- Technical writing, translation, localisation, internationalisation, and related applications;
- Subject field-specific education and training;
- Recording, indexing and retrieval of specialist information, etc.

The preparation of reliable terminologies - a task worth promoting
As a rule, high-quality, reliable terminological data are prepared by teams of experts (e.g. working groups or (sub-)committees attached to learned societies, scientific and technical associations, research institutions, or terminology standardisation bodies). Such preparation of terminological data in the areas of science and technology aims at unifying terminological usage in order to achieve clarity and consistency. In the social sciences and humanities, on the other hand, terminology work is more likely to aim at making conceptual differences transparent.

Cooperation in terminology work
Terminology work - and especially terminology standardisation - is very labour-intensive and time-consuming. Cooperation between institutions and organisations active in the preparation of terminological data should, therefore, be encouraged as much as possible. Exchanging terminological data helps prevent duplication of effort and create consistent terminologies across national, linguistic and subject field boundaries.

Cooperation in terminology preparation, and the exchange of terminological data in particular, may entail:
- Taking over a greater or smaller number of terminological entries or subsets of data from one or more existing terminological entries;
- Exchanging terminological data for use as raw material for systematic terminology work;
- Merging terminological data from different sources to prepare new entries, records, etc.
These activities should take place within the context of the requirements of copyright laws and other laws concerning intellectual property. They should aim both to avoid unduly impeding the exchange of ideas and to give due acknowledgement of the intellectual property of the originator of the data.

Applicability of intellectual property rights to terminology
While concepts, as "units of knowledge", should be regarded as the intellectual property of all mankind, their representations as terms and definitions (or other kinds of concept description), or as graphic symbols (or other kinds of non-linguistic representation) must be considered to be the intellectual property of the originator (i.e. a single expert, group of experts, or institution/organisation), if this information has been conceived or prepared by the respective originator in the form of a terminological entry, a specific sub-section of an entry, or a collection of terminological data.

Call for the open accessibility of terminologies
All institutions/organisations which prepare terminologies or which own terminological data should regard these as an important contribution to the intellectual property of mankind and should make them available to outside users on terms and conditions which reflect the nature of the terminologies in each case.

Code of good practice Where no bilateral agreements have been concluded to the contrary, the following general provisions shall apply as a code of good practice when importing, entering, or exchanging terminological data:

1 Originators' intellectual property
1.1 Reference to the origin of terminological data shall be explicitly made whenever (all or subsets of) the data are reproduced (output) or passed on to third parties. This applies equally to individual items and to subsets of data from terminological entries or records.
1.2 Where the origin of large volumes of data is to be documented, a single reference to the source may be all that is required when the data are reproduced or transferred. In this case, however, the provider must ensure that the recipient of the data agrees to give due acknowledgement to the originator of the data in all cases.
1.3 Where terminological data have been obtained from an originator who also markets the data himself or herself, the originator's consent shall be obtained where the data exchanged or taken over are made available to a third party in the form of complete entries or as parts of entries.
1.4 Data under copyright must not be passed on without the agreement of the originator. This does not refer to individual entries or a limited set of individual entries which are to be used for research or teaching purposes under the conditions of exemptions from copyright stipulations as they exist in the Berne Convention and its implementations at national level.
1.5 Financial agreements on licenses and royalties must be observed.
1.6 Institutions and organisations, in which large numbers of users have access to terminological data from an external source (i.e. the author{s} themselves or the economic right holder{s}, such as a publishing house), are responsible for taking all necessary measures against uncontrolled downloading/copying which violates any rights claimed by the originator{s} or rights holders.

2 Data integrity
2.1 Measures to protect data integrity must be strictly observed and must not be deliberately violated (e. g. by introducing minor changes or by taking data out of context). However, the correction of typographic errors and other obvious mistakes is permissible where justified.
2.2 In the case of highly sensitive terminological data (e. g. where safety issues are involved) the strict observance of data integrity with respect both to individual items of information and to data structures shall be obligatory.
2.3 Data marked as secret or confidential must not be passed on without the prior (preferably written) consent of their respective owner.

3 Standardised terminology
3.1 The exchange of terminological data among standards bodies and between standards bodies and relevant specialist institutions and organisations, in order to increase the volume and to improve the quality of standardised terminology, should be encouraged. Given the highly authoritative character of standardised or unified terminologies on the one hand and the highly labour-intensive efforts to create them, cooperation among standards bodies and between them and authoritatively unifying terminologies should be developed as much as possible.
3.2 In the case of terminological records, where no other agreement to the contrary has been made the originating standards body shall be indicated in every individual item or set of terminological information taken over. In this connection national standards bodies should follow the rules, established by international and European organizations of standardization, which regulate observance of copyright when international standards are adopted as regional or national standards.
3.3 Standards bodies should promote active cooperation in terminological data by assigning authoritative foreign language equivalents (and - if possible - definitions as well) to the entries received from sister organisations. Such cooperation needs written bilateral agreements, if federated agreements are not available, stipulating the conditions for the exchange and re-use of the data in accordance with existing legal frameworks.
3.4 Standards bodies and other institutions/organisations considered as authorities in their subject field, are encouraged to collaborate in the harmonisation of existing terminologies.
3.5 Cooperation concerning standardized terminologies shall conform to the Code of Good Practice for the preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards, which has to be observed according to the annex of WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.

4 Limited quotations of terminological data for scientific, research, teaching and training purposes
As a rule, copyright provisions do not apply
- in cases involving limited extracts of individual terminological data within the limits of defined exemptions from copyright
and
- to the use of individual items of terminological data or entries in scientific publications (limited quotations, fair use etc.) and for teaching and training purposes, provided that no data integrity rules are violated and that correct citation is ensured wherever possible and applicable.